How Technology Can Level the Playing Field

April 22, 2010 at 3:09 am (ED TECH 541, Portfolio) (, , , , , , , , )

Free, compulsory public education is a given in the United States. It has not always been this way, and it certainly isn’t that way around the world. That often gets lost in the shuffle of discussing the future of our future education. However, even within our school system, we have long left many students out in the cold for a variety of reasons—race, religion, gender, and those students with disabilities. Some of this inequity was resolved through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 1965. At the same time, children with disabilities were still not being included fully in the education process. With the creation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in the 1970’s, attention was finally being paid to ALL students. IDEA put into place six general principals, and, for the first time, gave a clear definition to who these students are. (Parent Mentors of Ohio)

Six Principals

  • free appropriate public education
  • appropriate evaluation
  • individualized education program
  • least restrictive environment
  • parent and student participation in decision making
  • procedural due process

Who Qualifies for Special Education?

  • Mental retardation
  • Hearing impairment (including deafness)
  • Speech or language impairment
  • Visual Impairment (including blindness)
  • Serious emotional disturbance
  • Orthopedic impairment
  • Autism
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Other health impairment (now includes ADD/ADHD)
  • Specific learning disability

Simply having the principals and categories laid out by an important piece of legislation is not enough to ensure equal access to education, and, even when there is access, a fair and equitable education for these students with special needs. This gap has spurred many different groups to step in and try to create educational materials and processes that ensure every child has access to a quality education. One such group is the National Center on Response to Intervention. Response to Intervention (RtI) combines individual education plans, assessment, and intervention activities into a school-wide or district-wide system of implementation to meet the diverse needs of all learners. (National Center on Response to Intervention) With the increased acceptance of this plan of attack, it has become increasingly important for teachers to reach all learners to ensure success. And we haven’t even begun to talk about the testing requirements outlined in the No Child Left Behind Act. NCLB, and its eventual re-authorization, have increased the impetus of schools to meet each child’s needs. Okay, so meeting all learners’ needs is a valid goal and something almost all teachers want to do. With the increased pressure, teachers need new tools to reach these diverse learners as outlined above. And technology can do just that! Whenever I think of technology leveling the playing field for all learners, I start with two sources. First, the federal government created a set of Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards, known best as Section 508. If I am going to build a technology component or incorporate a component in a program, I want to make sure that it meets minimum accessibility standards, and Section 508 is a great starting point. (National Archives, 2001) I would then evaluate a product to see if it complies with the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles as laid out by the Center for Applied Special Technology. (CAST, Inc., 2010) By choosing programs and publishers of content that can demonstrate Section 508 compliance and that adhere to UDL standards, you are ensuring that many students will be able to access the content you are presenting.

Standards and design principles are important to many categories of special needs learners, and ensuring appropriate Response to Intervention is an essential starting point for building student learning. But what are some of the actual tools for reaching students? It would be nearly impossible, and is certainly outside of the scope of this blog entry, to try and list them all. Instead, I can quickly list a few ideas that show the power of technology to reach learners and some resources to go to find tools for specific needs. The tools listed below are not even the tip of the iceberg; assistive and learning technologies are available to a mind-bogglingly overwhelming degree. Technology Tools

  • Screen readers and text-to-speech tools—These tools help students with visual impairment to access content on a screen in ways they would never be able to do with print, becoming part of the general classroom.
  • Close captioning—For students with auditory deficits, captions are becoming an increasingly available option for accessing voiced materials.
  • Skype or other streaming video chat—Students who are unable to attend classes in person for a variety of reasons can become part of the classroom with their peers.
  • Practice software—Individualized, CD-ROM or Web-based software that provides just-in-time, targeted instruction has the potential to reach kids where they need instruction most. If the software includes remediation and differentiated feedback, it is like having a teacher’s aide in the classroom.
  • Collaboration and communication tools—Students that may struggle with learning English or be reluctant to participate in class with other students can become more participative by using Whiteboard clickers, leaving audio or video blogs, and so on. This involvement enhances their learning experience

Web Sites to Assist in Selecting Assistive Technologies

REFERENCES

CAST, Inc. (2010) UDL guidelines—version 1.0: introduction. Retrieved from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines

National Archives and Resources Administration. (Dec 21, 2001). Electronic and information technology accessibility standards. (Federal Register) Retrieved from http://www.access-board.gov/sec508/standards.htm

Parent Mentors of Ohio. (n.d.). The history of IDEA. Retrieved from http://www.thelinkto.org/parentmentor/history_of_idea.htm

National Center on Response to Intervention. (n.d.). What is RtI? Retrieved from http://www.rti4success.org/

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Integrating Arts across the Curriculum

April 18, 2010 at 8:52 pm (ED TECH 541) (, , , , , , , )

For anyone following schools over the last five to ten years, there is no secret that arts classes and physical education are taking a backseat to math and reading instruction to allow schools to meet the strict goals set forth within the No Child Left Behind Act. It is clear that the arts are often seen as “effective and expressive, not academic or cognitive,” allowing that instruction to easily be pushed to the wayside. (Holcomb, 2007) However, there is a growing body of evidence showing that the arts are an integral part of the curriculum, and should be integrated into the curriculum wherever possible.

A compendium of research from the Arts Education Partnership (Deasy, 2002) identified upwards of 65 distinct relationships between teaching the arts in educational settings and increasing social and academic success. These 65 relationships demonstrate the power of the arts in the curriculum. The compendium took these 65 relationships and separated them into six major categories of benefits tied to student growth. The six categories include the following.

  1. Reading and Language Skills
  2. Mathematics Skills
  3. Thinking Skills
  4. Social Skills
  5. Motivation to Learn
  6. Positive School Environment

What to do with the arts then? How can we justify spending the time to incorporate them into the curriculum, based on the evidence showing that they are valuable pieces of the education puzzle? We have to find a place for the instruction within the school day. The idea of integrating arts across the curriculum allows us, as educators, to try to work the arts in where there is time. Whether that is reader’s theater or creating music videos or any other of a number of activities, the idea is to turn the students into creators of content and interpreters of content. And that is where technology comes in. There is an incredible array of technology tools out there for incorporating the arts into the curriculum, and with the increasing focus on 21st century tools and technology in the classroom, this is another way to bring arts into the curriculum and demonstrating their value.

Using technology tools in the arts also provides many students an outlet for creativity that they would otherwise struggle to create. Speaking as someone who has some ability in music, but no creative/artistic gene, I always dreaded drawing or modeling activities. With technology tools, I would have had a creative medium and tool set that otherwise was unavailable to me, helping me to be more involved in certain projects. Below I am sharing a few links that provide access to online tools for the arts.

  • Mr. Picassohead—(http://www.mrpicassohead.com/) With this site, any student can draw like Picasso. When studying fine art, a site like this offers a great opportunity for all students to create, share, and appreciate concepts embodied in the work of one of the world’s great artists.
  • ToonDoo—(http://www.toondoo.com/) This site is an example of a comic-strip generation tool available online. These sites allow the arts to be incorporated into the reading and writing curriculum. Of course, it is best to choose the site wisely, as you have to be careful about what strips others have made and posted.
  • Myna—(http://aviary.com/tools/myna) Aviary’s Myna tool serves as a free, online product very similar to Garage Band in many ways. A tool like this provides even the most musically ungifted individuals to create a musical masterpiece!
  • 3D Modeling Software—(http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/25-free-3d-modelling-applications-you-should-not-miss/) A variety of free, online tools exist for incorporating 3D modeling into the classroom. While not specifically one of the “arts,” it is a way to pull in artistic representations of student work.
  • Art Education 2.0—(http://arted20.ning.com/) On this site, teachers looking for innovative tools for incorporating arts instruction through technology can discuss ideas with others and have access to some successful things other teachers have done. A great resource for learning through the arts.

These sites are only a small representation of the many, many sites out there for integrating the arts into the classroom. There are options out there for everything you can think of. It is simply a matter of finding what you really want!

 REFERENCES

Deasy, R., ed. (2002). Critical links: student academic and social development. Retrieved from Arts Education Partnership at http://aep-arts.org/files/research/CriticalLinks.pdf

 Holcomb, S. (January, 2002). State of the arts. NEA Today. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/10630.htm

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Relative Advantage for Teaching History with Technology

April 9, 2010 at 2:56 am (ED TECH 541) (, , , , , )

Using technology to make history come alive for students can have several advantages. Many students find the study of history difficult, abstract or boring, or have difficulty making personal connections to the past because it is so different from their own lives. The greatest learning comes when students can make those connections and find common bonds with what they are learning. Some of the available technologies are now able to provide those connections between students and history, causing times of the past to be more than material on a page or even a slide on a screen.

One of the advantages of using interactive technology, such as a web site that allows students to develop a character and to travel through a time period, is that students are in control of their own choices and are able to navigate through the time period on their own. On one web site, www.tenement.org/immigrate, students travel virtually from Europe to America, choosing which items they bring with them, enter the country through Ellis Island, and choose how they will work once they are settled in the new country, all with the help of a recent immigrant girl. Students will remember and enjoy their time spent “playing” with this information much more clearly than if they had simply been lectured on how immigrants came to America, or if they had read a textbook with the information. Because the web site is set up as a game with many options, such as choosing different names for one’s passport, students will be motivated to play it more than once and be more likely to retain the information even more.

Students are also granted greater access to artifacts and primary sources if they have access to the Internet. With the huge number of web sites that are available, students can view artifacts for almost any time period they are studying, allowing those to see articles they would not otherwise ever have had the access to in the past.  At the site, http://memory.loc.gov, students can view letters actually written by Abraham Lincoln that are part of the Stern Collection. There are many other artifacts on this site that are part of this collection, giving students a more complete picture of one of America’s greatest presidents. This is also more interactive than photographs on a page, as the images can be turned and rotated, giving the viewer a complete image of three-dimensional objects rather than a flat image from a book.

Another obvious advantage that technology holds over traditional learning resources is that students are able to engage all of their senses more fully. Learning does not just take place in the mind, but also with the ears, the eyes, and the whole body. Sites like www.americaslibrary.gov take this into consideration and encourage students to listen to music from different eras of America’s history, watch short films of time periods, and play games trying out their knowledge of American history, such as “Super Sleuth,” in which students look at photographs of important events in American history and identify the object that does not belong. The more a student is an engaged, the more likely he or she is learning. Sites like these are also designed to give students choices and to encourage lots of exploration, which keeps the students coming back time and again, reinforcing the information learned and exposing them to more.

Making history fun and accessible is perhaps one of the biggest advantages that technology is giving teachers today. Allowing students to play games with historical settings, themes, or characters is all part of that. Using mobile phones with game software, teachers have found a way to engage students while visiting archaeological sites thousands of years old. Students play games that are virtual “treasure hunts” that help them to visualize the original formations of building that are now almost completely destroyed, and teachers report significant increases in student engagement. (Ardito, Costabile, Lanzilotti, & Pederson, 2007.) Use of mobile phone software to engage students in field trips more fully could be extended to more than just archaeological sites; the above research is now quite old and phones were nowhere near as capable three years ago as they are now. It is feasible to expect that this application of the use of technology in teaching history will only become more applicable and relevant in education as time passes.

REFERENCES

Ardito, C., Costabile, M.F., Lanzilotti, R., Pederson, T. (2007). Making dead history come alive through mobile game-play. Retrieved from  http://www.di.uniba.it/~ivu/papers/CHI07_ardito_GaiusDay.pdf

Several of the above sources were found at www.historyexplorer.americanhistory.si.edu, a search engine provided on the Smithsonian web site for teachers.

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Integrating Language Arts into Your Curriculum

March 21, 2010 at 1:55 am (ED TECH 541) (, , , , , , , )

I have spent all eleven years of my professional career working on reading and language arts programs for the K-8 classroom, so you can guess how important I think it is to incorporate language arts into the curriculum. My thoughts are summed up very well, if in a little more of a touchy-feely way than I would probably say it, in the following quote.
“Language is key to students’ intellectual, social, and emotional growth; and, is a necessary means to learning in all disciplines.” (Rend & Paquette, 2006) I absolutely believe this to be the case, and I have seen this first hand. As I have visited classrooms and participated in field testing for our programs, I have witnessed struggling learners from the worst of possible backgrounds suddenly blossom into confident, successful students by growing their reading and language strengths.

Mildred Donoghue in Chapter 4 of Language Arts: Integrating Skills for Classroom Teaching describes language arts as the gateway to the listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing skills and strategies needed to succeed across the curriculum. (Donoghue, 2008) In order to truly access content-area learning, students must have a solid foundation in language arts, or they will struggle with the text and information they are being presented. Science and social studies textbooks, math story problems, music lyrics, all become a challenge without strong language arts skills. Communicating what you have learned or believe is an essential task in schools and in the workplace; again incredibly challenging without language arts skills. The same can be said for listening to lectures in high school and college. The list goes on.

Of course, this class is focusing on the importance of incorporating technology across different teaching experiences. Language arts instruction most definitely can benefit from the use of technology in the learning experience. I often go back to something I read many years ago about the value of technology in the classroom, but specifically tied to language arts in the classroom. “Technology has everything to do with literacy. And being able to use the latest electronic technologies has everything to do with being literate.” (Bolter, 1991) There is truth in that. As the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has worked to demonstrate, using literacy without technology in this day and age is not truly literacy. I agree to some extent, but would not quite go that far. In my opinion, language arts skills and technological literacy SHOULD go hand in hand, but you can build language arts skills and then apply them to technology literacy.

In thinking how language arts can be, there are myriad opportunities to do so. For one of the assignments I completed for my thematic unit, I had the kids searching the Internet, then presenting content to the class. Both the act of searching and presenting information represent the incorporation of language arts. On the schedule of assignments, there is a week where we will be creating a Glogster online poster; using this presentation medium is another way to incorporate language arts into the curriculum. During the week 8 assignment, I had the students in my class working in teams to respond to a series of questions in writing, a great opportunity to use language using technology tools. Other opportunities for incorporating language arts I am sure will present themselves over the semester. At the same time, I can see incorporating journal-writing assignments, paired reading and discussion practice, report writing activities, responding to youtube/classroom lectures, and other examples of language arts in the assignments.

REFERNCES

Bolter, J. D. (1991). Writing space: The computer, hypertext, and the history of writing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Donoghue, Mildred. (2008). Language arts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Martin Rend, J. & Paquette, D.K.R. (2006). “Using Technology to Integrate Language Arts Across the Curriculum”. In C. Crawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2006 (pp. 3276-3277). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.editlib.org/p/22596.

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Why Use Spreadsheets and Databases in the Classroom

February 20, 2010 at 3:02 am (ED TECH 541) (, , , , )

When someone uses the term spreadsheet or database, most people think about businesses; specifically how these electronic tools can enhance the day-to-day operations and effectiveness of employees. Or maybe you think of researchers collecting copious amounts of information and needing a way to track, store, and evaluate bits of information. However, these tools can be powerful instructional agents for students across the learning spectrum! In order to understand how these tools can be used in classrooms, we first have to understand what a spreadsheet is and what it can do, as well as how it differs from a database.

 Spreadsheets—In general terms, a spreadsheet is defined as a worksheet or table consisting of values organized in rows and columns. Over time, the term spreadsheet has grown to mean both a worksheet and the computer programs that are used to create worksheets. Spreadsheets allow us to automate formulas that would otherwise take hours to hand-calculate, while also including organizational display features that enhance how we share the numbers and data we are collecting.

 Databases—These electronic tools provide invaluable data collection and search options. Databases are not specifically classified along with productivity tools like spreadsheets, word processors, and so on, but, at the same time, they do indeed have the power to enhance productivity by simplifying and speeding up how we work. Using databases is essential for organizing large amounts of information and beginning to look for patterns or like characteristics in data to drive decision making, research, targeted responses, across a range of fields.

 Database or Spreadsheet?

As technology tools both spreadsheets and databases can be used to organize, sort, and report data. At the same time, they have some very important differences. In general terms, if you are looking for formulas and calculations or are using small, manageable amounts of data, then spreadsheets are for you. On the other hand, if you are looking to compare differing sets of data and need to sort and report bits and pieces in different combinations, or if you are working with large amounts of data, then a database is likely worth the time to learn to use and manage. Karyn Stille from QCI Solutions, Inc., provided the following simple breakdown of when one tool is better than the other.

” In a Nutshell Use a database if…

  • the information is a large amount that would become unmanageable in spreadsheet form and is related to a particular subject.
  • you want to maintain records for ongoing use.
  • the information is subject to many changes (change of address, pricing changes, etc.).
  • you want to generate reports based on the information.

Use a spreadsheet if…

  • you want to crunch numbers and perform automatic calculations.
  • you want to track a simple list of data.
  • you want to easily create charts and graphs of your data.
  • you want to create “What-if” scenarios.

In most cases, using the combination of a database to store your business records and a spreadsheet to analyze selected information works best.”

Relative Advantage for Using these Tools in the Classroom

When looking at using spreadsheets and databases in the classroom, the easy reasons center around a few key points.

  1. Real-life tools and situations—These are tools used in many walks of life, providing a real-life application of technology.
  2. Focusing learning on high-order thinking—Instead of focusing learning on calculations or organization, these tools focus learning on understanding and exploring data.
  3. Efficiency and consistency of learning activities—As educators, we can provide consistent, efficient learning activities by providing initial content in a database or spreadsheet, making it easier to provide everyone the same information to start with, and setting up the lesson or activity with minimal student effort.
  4. Visualizing and reporting data—Both spreadsheets and databases provide support for taking data and sharing it in visualized and sorted, easy-to-read ways.

 For more information on some of the advantages and difficulties for incorporating spreadsheets in classroom teaching, see the following report from teach-nology.com: http://www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/excel/print.htm.

 For a similar information for using databases in the classroom, see this report from teach-nology.com: http://www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/databases/print.htm.

 REFERENCE

Stille, K. Database vs. spreadsheet. Retrieved February 19, 2010, from QCI Solutions, Inc. website: http://www.qcisolutions.com/dbinfo1.htm

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Relative Advantage for Using Ed Tech

February 14, 2010 at 4:34 am (ED TECH 541) (, , , )

There are many ways to look at the relative advantages for using educational technology in the classroom; however, for me, the easiest reason is that we can offer unprecedented access for the widest range of students through the use of educational technology.  Students with learning disabilities, students with physical disabilities, students who need one-to-one instruction, students who learn better through visual media–educational technology has the relative advantage of being able to address the specific deficit or need of each student, as dictated by an experienced, knowledgeable teacher. Another area where technology can enhance learning for students in a way teachers would struggle is through the use of assessments and immediate, on-the-fly adaptation of learning based on the assessment. In that statement, I do not mean necessarily a test as much as consistent, constant evaluation of each and every response a student makes during instruction. Of course, technology is also very limited, at this point in time, in the types of responses that can be evaluated. Teachers are still the best overall evaluators of student progress and success, but there are ways that technology tools can analyze data quickly and efficiently to aid teachers in providing instruction for students.

Educational Technology for Increasing Access to Learning

Educational Technology for Data Analysis

The first paragraph focused on the areas of access and data analysis as key areas of relative advantage for the use of educational technology in the classroom. Access for all students and adaptation through data analysis are also the most important areas of relative advantage that I see for technology in the classroom. Other areas of perceived relative advantage include some of the following.

  • Motivation — There is a clear belief and expectation that the use of technology in the classroom can engage and motivate students. I whole heartedly agree, but with the caveat that we must make sure it is the RIGHT technology for the task and for the student. http://caret.iste.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=answers&QuestionID=3
  • Ubiquitous Learning — The idea that students can learn anytime, anywhere is extremely powerful, and one I think will gain more and more steam over the next few years. While teachers can lead learners in this direction, ubiquitous learning will ultimately depend on the learners themselves finding the tools they want and the content they are interested in pursuing. http://education.illinois.edu/uli/
  •  Collaboration — Technology tools provide new and exciting options for collaboration among learners. http://lone-eagles.com/articles/tencollab.htm
  • Simulation/realism — Using educational technology in the classroom continues to provide advances in simulating live environments and experiences that can lead to success in careers and professions. Flight simulators, emergency response systems, call center training, stock-trading games, and so on, can all prepare learners to have greater success in the application of knowledge and skills when stepping into their chosen career. http://www.educationalsimulations.com/

While there are certainly any number of ways and reasons to incorporate edcuational technology in the learning envrionment. Without a teacher’s expertise in knowing what and how to incorporate technology, the learner will not necessarily choose the right tools for the job. It is the idea of shared instructional responsibility between the teacher and educational technology to secure the best learning experience for learners. The relative advantage of using educational technology can only truly occur when the right content is delivered through the right technology at the right time for the right learner, and this doesn’t happen without the teacher.

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